System of national accounts is group of mutually joined macro-economic accounts, balances and tables as well as classification, which represents statistical framework for monitoring of economic movements of each country.
Internationally proposed methodology for calculation of national accounts is System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 1993) that offers detailed theoretical framework ,while for EU members it is prescribed methodology European System of National Accounts (ESA 1995) which is completely consistent with SNA 1993 and adjusted to European environment and practice. Legal obligation of each member country is to respect ESA 1995 in their statistical practice.
ESA 1995 gives framework for making two groups of account:
- Institutional sectors accounts;
- Input output framework and activities accounts.
Institutional units are economic subject, which have right to own goods and assets, to have debts, involve in economic activities, and make transactions with other activities.
Institutional sector are groups of accounts that have similar economic activities. If institutional unit is classified within one sector, according to methodology it is impossible to qualify it in some other sector.
System recognizes following types of institutional sectors :
- Non-financial corporation;
- Financial corporation;
- Non-profitable institutions in the service of household (NPISD);
National accounts are made in annual and quarter level.
Calculation is done in current (market) prices and in permanent prices in order to define real increase rate which neglect the influence of prices.